Appendix 2 -lith words

The suffix '-lith' has been used to create numerous special terms for particular types of coccoliths. These terms are now used in varying senses, in particular some are used as purely descriptive terms applicable to coccoliths of widely varying structure and taxonomic affinity (e.g. placolith), whilst others are now only used as informal taxon-based terms, i.e. for the characteristic coccoliths from one particular taxon. These terms are, consequently, described in different parts of the main text. For ease of reference, they are all listed here. Only the modern/recommended meaning is given here. Readers should be aware that many of these terms have been used in varying ways in the literature. Terms not used in the main text are given in square brackets, [].

Descriptive terms of wide application
Coccolith plate-like calcareous component of haptophyte cell-covering, homologous with organic scale. {Huxley 1858}
Heterococcolith coccolith formed of crystal-units of complex shape. {Braarud et al. 1955a, 1955b}
Holococcolith coccolith formed of numerous minute (<0.1 Ám) crystallites all of similar shape and size. {Braarud et al. 1955a, 1955b}
Murolith any heterococcolith with elevated rim but without well-developed shields. {Young 1992a}
Nannolith calcareous structure lacking the typical features of hetero- or holococcoliths and so of uncertain affinity. {?Perch-Nielsen 1985}
Placolith any heterococcolith with two or more well-developed shields. {Lohmann 1902}
Planolith any planar heterococcolith, rim not elevated. {Young 1992a}

Specialist descritive terms for holococcolith morphologies
Calicalith tube-shaped holococcolith, flaring, open distally. {Kleijne 1991}
Calyptrolith cap-shaped holococcolith. {Lohmann 1902}
Crystallolith planar holococcolith, rim weak. {Braarud et al. 1955a, 1955b}
Flosculolith flaring, tube-shaped holococcolith, with distal opening partially closed by a vaulted roof. {Kleijne et al. 1991}
Fragariolith holococcolith with simple basal ring and leaf like process. {Kleijne et al. 1991}
Gliscolith tube shaped holococcolith with bulbous distal part. {Norris 1985}
Helladolith tube-shaped holococcolith with bridge developed into leaf-like process. {Heimdal and Gaarder 1980}
Laminolith laminated disc-shaped holococcolith +/-pores. {Heimdal and Gaarder 1980}
Zygolith tube-shaped holococcolith with bridge. {Kamptner 1937}

Informal taxon-based descriptive terms
Ceratolith horseshoe shaped nannolith of Ceratolithaceae.
Discoaster stellate nannolith of Discoasteraceae.
Fasciculith compact, top-shaped nannolith of Fasciculithaceae.
Helicolith coccolith with helical flange of Helicosphaeraceae.
Heliolith stellate nannolith with birefringent central-area , of Heliolithus (Palaeogene).
Lepidolith simple planolith, formed of two elements, of Gladiolithus. {Halldal and Markali 1955}
Lopadolith elevated murolith of Scyphosphaera. {Lohmann 1902}
Osteolith femur-shaped circum-flagellar coccolith of Ophiaster and Michaelsarsia. {Halldal and Markali 1955}
Pentalith stellate nannolith with 5 segments of Braarudosphaeraceae. {Gran and Braarud 1935}
Protolith murolith with non-imbricate rim of Stephanolithaceae, Parhabdolithaceae. {Bown 1987}
Rhabdolith planolith (+/- spine) of Rhabdosphaeraceae (also has been for spine bearing coccoliths in general). {Schmidt 1870}
Scapholith rhombic murolith of Calciosoleniaceae. {Deflandre and Fert 1954}
Sphenolith nannolith of Sphenolithaceae. {Deflandre 1952}

Obsolete terms
[Areolith] cap-shaped holococcolith with interior ridges and areolae. {Norris 1985}
[Asterolith] obsolete term for stellate nannoliths. {Sujkowski 1931}
[Caneolith*] endothecal murolith (+/- flanges) of Syracosphaeraceae. {Braarud et al. 1955a, 1955b}.
[Cribrilith] perforate murolith of Pontosphaeraceae; in effect a synonym of discolith and so superfluous. {Halldal and Markali 1955}
[Cricolith*] narrow-rimmed placolith of Pleurochrysidaceae. {Braarud et al. 1955a, 1955b}
[Cyatholith] obsolete, alternative to placolith. {Kamptner 1948}
[Cyclolith] obsolete, circular placolith. {Kamptner 1948}
[Cyrtolith*] exothecal planolith or inverted murolith of Syracosphaeraceae. {Braarud et al. 1955a, 1955b}
[Discolith*] murolith of Pontosphaeraceae (has also been used for muroliths in general). {Huxley 1868}
[Heliolith] heterococcolith with c-axes of main elements radial. {Deflandre 1950, Aubry 1984 et seq.}
[Ortholith] nannolith or holococcolith with c-axes of main elements tangential or parallel{Deflandre 1950; Aubry 1984 et seq.}
[Pappolith*] murolith of Papposphaeraceae. {Norris 1983}
[Pentagolith] Pentagonal coccolith with >5 elements, e.g. Goniolithus. These are so rare that the term is redundant. {Farinacci et al. 1971}
[Porolith] obsolete term for perforate element of Thoracosphaera. {Deflandre 1952}
[Prismatolith] obsolete term for imperforate element of Thoracosphaera.
[Rhombolith] alternative term for scapholith. {Halldal 1954}
[Tremalith*] vase-shaped murolith of Hymenomonadaceae. {Lohmann 1913}
* These terms, have now been moved from the "Informal taxon-based descriptive terms" category to the obsolete category. i.e. they were still in use in 1987 but are now, thankfully, obsolete [JRY 2017]
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